Friends, As you know Previously we discussed about Basic Essential of computer
Now ,We discussed about Basic Essential of computer networking
As we Know ,Computer networking has become much easier over the years, and it is now possible to set up your own computer network in your home with just a little bit of help. There are multiple components that go into computer networks, but not all of these are needed in every type of network. An understanding of the various components that are available can help you design the right network for your home or business environment.
A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. Servers are faster computers that run various software, store and process information and also provide a human interface for the users to be able to use the networked computers.
nodes are the computers on the network, which are provided to the users to carry out their tasks using the network. In other word We Say that “A node is a connection point, either a redistribution point or an end point for data transmissions. In general, node has a programmed or engineered capability to recognize and process or forward transmissions to other nodes”.
A node, which is more powerful, and can handle local information processing or graphics processing is calls a workstation. The workstation works only for the person sitting in front of it, where as a server serves all the people on the network to share its resources. A workstation usually has an inexpensive, small hard disk to carry out local tasks. Some workstations, called disk-less workstations, have no disk drive of their own. Such workstations also called dumb terminals and they rely completely on the LAN for their access.
Network Interface Card:
The network interface is sometimes referred to as a NIC (network interface card) and may be integrated into the computer's motherboard or may be a separate card. The NIC is the component that takes information from the computer and sends it out onto the network wire, or into the air in the case of a wireless network.
When you connect multiple computers on a network, they all plug into a central device called a hub. The hub has the job of moving the network signal from one wire to another. In the case of a basic hub, the signal from one computer is sent to all other computers on the hub, and each NIC decides whether to pass the information to the computer or just drop it if it is not the intended recipient.
Switches are really smart hubs in that they are able to build tables that keep up with which computer is on which switch port. With this intelligence, a switch does not transmit all information to all other computers on the switch, just to the destination computer. Switching technology helps to reduce congestion on a network and should be used for networks of 10 or more computers.
Routers are really smart switches in that they are aware of other networks, while hubs and switches are only aware of the network they facilitate. Routers are used to connect one local area network (LAN) to another, many times across long distances via commercial data carriers. Another way routers are smart is they can dynamically update their routing information, detecting when one route to a network is down, and checking to see if another route is available.,read more
Gateways is a term that used to refer to a routing device, today in the TCP/IP world, the term ‘Router’ is used to describe such a device. The term gateway now refers to special-purpose devices, which perform protocols conversions .Gateway implement application layer conversions of information received form various protocols.
Transmission Media Cable:
Media are roughly grouped into guided media, such as copper wire and fiber Optics, and unplugged media, such as terrestrial wireless, satellite, and lasers through the air. The most ubiquitous media is commonly called Ethernet cabling, which is actually one of several categories of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. The higher cable rating i.e. Cat5, Cat6, Cat7 Support the higher bandwidth. In addition, there is fiber optic cable, which is more expensive and uses laser or LED light rather than electrical pulses. Wireless has become popular in homes due to the ease and low expense of setting up a network.
Also Read : Basic Essential of computer , Networking hardware
Network Software is the intelligence that causes all of the components to function together. The most popular network software today uses what is known as the TCP/IP protocol suite, or stack. The suite is constructed from actual layers of software, where each has its own function. While the seven-layer OSI model Physical layer, Data Link layer, Network layer, Transport layer, Session layer, Presentation layer and Application layer; is the starting point for network stacks, In TCP/IP Internet model has four layers i.e. Link, Internet, Transport and Application that combine several of the seven OSI layers into the other layers.
These are basic Essential of computer Networks ,
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